Learning and Working Styles

The CAI approach uses the appropriate mix of the Learning Styles Analysis, Teaching Styles Analysis, and Working Styles Analysis together with other techniques develops highly productive teams, especially in complex team environments.

While Instruments such as Myers-Briggs, Strength Builder, etc. are useful tools, they remain predominantly personality profiles. Their focus is on the individual with only limited view of the effects on team participation and performance. While they affect teams, they are not particularly useful in team building because under stress human behavior can change dramatically leading to unpredictable actions.  The CAI is a certified implementer of Learning, Teaching, and Working style analysis.  This methodology supports individual students, teachers, classroom, employees, managers, and organizations at all levels.





  • LSA Junior
  • LSA Adult
  • TSA – ED
  • TSA – Corp
  • WSA – Manager
  • WSA – Employee

To order your LSA or WSA press the red Order Now button. This will open an email addressed to us. Tell us which assessment you would like to order from the list. We will contact you to complete your order.

About Learning and Working Styles

In general terms, the first major category of human learning or working  style is left-brain dominance. Left-brain, analytic thinkers look for details. They have no interest in the big picture[1] and receive information best in component parts building to the whole. Much as reasoning from first principle, sequential learners proceed step-by-step through the process, expecting to learn as they go and build towards the pre-planned, final outcome. Connections between data and other relevant areas are demonstrated.[2]

The other major category of human learning and working style is right-brain thinking, also called global or holistic. Due to this form of dominance they focus on the bigger picture, correlating the overall situation and incline to details only when essential[3]. A holistic learner (seeing, inductive) prefers an overview first with sequential steps to follow. Gifted learners (and leaders) are people with the ability to utilize both styles and demonstrate a cognitive flexibility that enables them to adjust to the situation[4].

Individual sensory modalities vary in preference between auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic. There are also preferences within each category. External auditory (hearing) learners retain approximately 70% of what they hear.  External auditory (talking/discussing) relates to gathering information from participation in conversations or other dialogue. As opposed to the hearing preference (an individual process), the talking/discussion modality is best supported by peer, team or group activities. The third auditory modality is internal and reflects the preference for inner dialogue. These learners comprehend new information and make decisions using internal cognitive processes such as self-talk. Like the auditory sensory modality, the Prashnig model has internal and external visual components. External visual (reading) learners receive information best from printed text. They often take notes to re-enforce learning and retention and retain a great deal of what they read if engaged by the subject. The external visual (seeing/watching) modality indicates a preference for information intake from pictures and observation. Finally, internal visual (imagination) corresponds to an individual’s intake through their formulation of mental picture and visualizing. The individual’s physical need for mobility, intake (chewing, eating, drinking) and preferred time of day also affect their ability to receive information. The environmental components that influence learning include individual preferences for sound levels, light temperature, and the physical work area itself.

Individual preference or non-preference for working or learning alone, or as part of a pair, team, peer group and the degree of authority required are also significant factors. The individual’s personal motivation, persistence, conformity, need for structure/guidance and desire for variety also impact on concentration and, more importantly, comprehension.

The most important characteristic of the Learning, Teaching and Working Styles Analysis factors is that three-quarters are biological and cannot be changed easily or permanently. The only impact on the individual’s ability to learn or work, regardless of his/her echelon is in the social grouping and attitude areas. Teams can be trained and motivation can come from inspired leadership. No amount of training can change a right brain thinker to a left-brain thinker.

When properly applied in the proposed approach, new teams can be formed to achieve the optimum mix of compatible learning and working styles to produce high performance teams. Existing teams will benefit from understanding team members’ working styles and how to use them to achieve high performance goals.

For Students of All Ages

LSA-PyramidThe Learning Style Analysis (LSA) (Dunn & Prashnig) is tailored to learning styles for ages 5 and up. Every student has a uniquely different learning style: they learn, concentrate and process information in different ways. Many educational profiling tools are available, but only the LSA reveals all a student's biophysical makeup and conditioned style elements across the six key areas in the Learning Style Pyramid Model. These include: Information Processing; Sensory Modalities; Physical Needs; Environmental Preferences; Social Aspects; and Attitudes.

The LSA reveals each student's unique combination of style features; shows how to rearrange the learning environment to get better results; provides guidelines for helping students concentrate better and learn most successfully; and adapts to the specific needs of four age groups (5-10 years; 7 – 13 years; 14-18 years; Adult).



We offer several versions of the LSA:

  • LSA Mini(Pupils 5 - 10 years of age; Older pupils with limited time to spend on the questionnaire; Those who find it hard to concentrate on reading for extended periods of time (more than 10 minutes); Those whose English reading skills make simpler text more desirable). LSA Junior MINI is an assessment tool based on the LSA Junior. The questionnaire has been shortened significantly, and the wording of the questions simplified, so that younger children (as well as those who find reading English a challenge) could understand it more easily. The reports you receive when you purchase the LSA Junior MINI are identical to those of the LSA Junior.
  • LSA Junior Complete – (Pupils 7 - 13 years of age). Four reports are available including: 1) Student report (addressing the student who has undergone the assessment); 2) Parent report (addressing the student's parent or caregiver); 3) Teacher report (addressing the student's teacher); and 4) Group report (addressing the teacher of a whole class of students and providing a summary of the class learning needs and non-preferences).
  • LSA Senior Complete – (Pupils 14 - 18 years of age who are still at school). All four reports are available (Student, Parent, Teacher, Group)
  • LSA Adult (Students 16 years and older enrolled at a tertiary education institution such as a university or a polytechnic and adults 18+). For adults studying or furthering their education at a different type of institution (on-the-job courses, learning a trade, etc.), we recommend the Working Style Analysis (WSA) that contains a section on learning in a job situation).

For Teachers, Instructors, and Managers at All Levels

tsa_imgThe Teaching Style Analysis (TSA) (Dunn & Prashnig) is the ultimate professional and skills development for teachers. Every teacher or Trainer has a unique style and teaching or training preferences of their own. The key to optimum performance in the classroom or training environment is to discover these and use them in preparation, teaching or training and managing students. Of all the many educational profiling tools available to educators and trainers, only TSA reveals all a teacher's or trainer’s style features, across the six key areas: Information Processing; Teaching Methods (Sensory); Classroom Management (Physical); Classroom Design (Environment); Lesson Planning (Techniques); and Professional Characteristics (Attitudes). The TSA reveals each teacher's or trainer’s unique combination of style elements; shows how to rearrange the learning or training environment to get better results; helps matching the specific needs of students and their teachers or trainers during the learning process.

Teachers and Trainers use the appropriate TSA to determine their teaching strengths and develop personal development plans to improve.



There are two versions of the TSA.

  • Teaching Style Analysis – Education (TSA-ED) (Dunn & Prashnig). The appropriate assessment tool for those teaching in schools (K-12) as well as colleges and universities using traditional classroom instruction. It is the ultimate professional and skills development for teachers. Teachers use the TSA to determine their teaching strengths and develop personal development plans to improve.
  • Teaching Style Analysis – Corporate (TSA-Corp) (Dunn & Prashnig). The appropriate assessment tool for those seeking a career in corporate, military, or government related training. It focuses on the capabilities required to be successful in a training (performance based) environment. It is ultimate professional and skills development for trainers.

Taken together the LSA and TSA are shown to improve student performance in both test scores and practical knowledge application.

For Managers and Employees

WSAThe Working Style Analysis (WSA) (Dunn & Prashnig) is an assessment instrument derived from the original Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model. It assesses the 49 overall individual style preferences in the six basic areas of immediate environment, attitudinal, social groupings, sensory modalities, physical needs and left/right brain dominance. Responses to the WSA questionnaire provide individual profiles of each subject’s working style. Taken together, individual results produce a group profile for individual offices and the Mission overall.




The two versions of the WSA available are the WSA-Employee and WSA-Manager

  • WSA-Employee – Provides individuals in the workplace with detailed information about their unique working style and gives managers the possibility to manage them to their greatest potential. Self-knowledge reduces stress at work, improves job satisfaction, and is an essential component of any viable self-development plan for team members.


  • WSA-Manager - Provides individuals with all the feedback from the standard WSA that includes detailed information about their unique working style and gives managers the possibility to manage them to their greatest potential. Self-knowledge reduces stress at work, improves job satisfaction, and is an essential component of any viable self-development plan for team members. In addition the WSA-Manager provided those seeking careers in management critical insights into their individual management style with a variety of groups. This allows the student to focus their career development on leveraging their management strengths as well as areas where improvements are needed to make them highly successful.

[1] Barbara Prashnig, “The Power of Diversity: New Ways of Learning and Teaching”, (New Zealand: David Bateman, Ltd., 1998), 16.
[2] Roger M. Felder, Matters of Style, page 8 of 9
[3] Prashnig, “The Power of Diversity: New Ways of Learning and Teaching”, 16.
[4] Prashnig, “The Power of Diversity: New Ways of Learning and Teaching”, 19.